Thursday, March 31, 2011

Mormon Temples and Catholic Sacraments

Abstract

Aspects of worship in Roman Catholic Church[1] are rooted in ancient Christian practice. Likewise Latter-day Saint (LDS) temple worship is also grounded in ancient Christian practice. Both of these world religions should therefore have in their worship Sacraments rites and ordinances that are similar.[2] The purpose and intent of this paper is to discuss Catholic and LDS Sacraments, rites and ordinances and allow the reader to compare them.[3] Through a discussion of the Sacraments, rites and ordinances of these two faiths, the reader should be able to draw out the similarities in the following areas: questions regarding worthiness, entrance into the Church, the sacrament of Baptism and washings and anointings, Holy Orders and LDS temple clothing, the sacrament of Matrimony and celestial marriage, the Mass, Eucharist, and the endowment.

Latter-day Saint temple rites and ordinances and Catholic rites and Sacraments should be viewed as things that are sacred and holy. The word sacred comes from an obsolete past participle, sacren, which means “to make holy.” Sacren comes from an even earlier old French word sacrer which has its roots in the Latin word sacrare and sacer, which is “to make sacred, consecrate . . . dedicated and holy.”[4] The Oxford dictionary defines sacred as something that is “connected with God” or “regarded with great respect and reverence by a particular religion, group, or individual.”[5] Merriam-Webster defines sacred as something that is “worthy of religious veneration” or something that is “entitled to reverence and respect.”[6] These meanings imply that something that is sacred should be considered holy or hallowed. No part of these explanations implies a need for silence on the part of those who view something as sacred. Both LDS temple worship and Catholic rites and sacraments fall within those definitions.

Catholic Sacraments and the LDS Temple

The Holy Sacraments of Catholicism “are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites, by which the sacraments are celebrated, signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions.”[7] There are seven sacred sacraments in the Catholic Church: Baptism, Confirmation, the Holy Eucharist, Reconciliation,[8] Anointing of the Sick,[9] Holy Orders, and Matrimony.[10] The purposes of sacraments within the Catholic Church are “to sanctify men, to build up the Body of Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are signs they also instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it.”[11]

There are few things that have captured the interest of Mormons and non-Mormons alike more than the temple and its ceremonies. The reluctance of Church members to discuss the temple has only fueled this fire[12] and left the modern world void of any true discussion of what happens in the temple. This has left critics of the Church free to defame and misrepresent LDS temple worship to both members and non members who may have questions about the Church beliefs.[13] The advent of the internet has heralded an era where in a matter of a few seconds information can be accessed. M. Russell Ballard spoke of the need for Latter-day Saints to define and expound on what the Church teaches, instead of having critics define our doctrine.[14] Conversations are occurring on the internet without the participation of Latter-day Saints.[15]

Often Latter-day Saints are reluctant to speak of the temple in any language other than broad, general terms. This kind of language does not allow a person interested in Latter-day Saint temple worship to learn very much. A Latter-day Saint will often simply say that the temple is not secret but that it is sacred. Because what happens in the temple is sacred to Latter-day Saints, they do not speak of it for varied reasons.[16] The idea of not speaking of sacred things is noteworthy but somewhat misunderstood.[17] Personal testimonies or conversion experiences are examples of things that are sacred but nevertheless are shared by Latter-day Saints. Sacred things should not be spoken of in the company of those who will not hold sacred things as sacred.[18] If one wishes to speak of sacred things it should be to the right person, at the right time, and in the right setting.[19]

The temple is a culmination of LDS theology that provides a fusion of Mormon beliefs concerning the purpose of life,[20] the origin of man and the creation of this world, and is taught in a sacred ceremony that allows saints to symbolically be reunited with God for a brief time as they are obedient to the commands of God.[21] Temple worship is perhaps the most ritualistic aspect of the Mormon tradition. Found in the temple are ritualistic clothing, altars, changes in lighting that are allegories, metaphors and symbols. Within the temple, Latter-day Saints are washed and anointed, receive an endowment, and sealed in marriage.

Questions Regarding Worthiness

Catholics are required to attend[22] confession at least once a year even if they go to church frequently.[23] Even at the time of Baptism and before, questions are asked pertaining not only to worthiness but also where the person stands regarding the doctrines and theology of the Roman Church.[24] Circumstances are also similar when a person would become a monk or nun. They would face “certain interrogations” concerning the way they lived and what they believed.[25]

Before Latter-day Saints are allowed to worship and participate in the temple, they must first face an interview from their bishop regarding worthiness and belief in doctrine.[26] During this questioning, the bishop or stake president explores with the member their pattern of life, establishing if the person is living a life in a way that is pleasing to the Lord. These questions cover the basic areas of conviction, behavior, and self assessment. If something is amiss in a person’s life, this interview is a place where a common judge in Israel can help them resolve it and help facilitate repentance.[27] Most Latter-day Saints who are raised in the Church normally begin temple worship[28] in their late teens or early twenties. People who convert to Mormonism normally have a waiting period of one year before they are allowed to go to the temple.[29]

Entrance and Participation Limited

Entrance and participation in the Church has been limited historically. Since the Catholic Church was persecuted by the Roman authorities, steps were taken not only to protect the church but also to limit who was allowed to witness the services conducted in the Church. A “porter” “who stood at the door to see that only worthy and reliable persons entered.” [30] The last remnant of this can be seen in the statues of angels, saints, and other creatures that stand guard at the entrances of churches.

In the early Catholic Church, people who had not become members in full standing were called Catechumens. The danger the early Church faced was that in times of persecution an individual might apostatize or even betray the Church. To combat this serious danger, the Church instituted instruction to prepare a person both intellectually and morally to “guard against the arguments of pagan philosophers and . . . to give strength against the torments of persecutors.”[31]

In the case of adult converts, there is a division between those who are merely inquirers and those who are catechumens. In the early Church if an individual sought to learn more about the Church, “he had to show he was earnest about” learning. During this stage, the individual was not considered a Christian. When the inquirer satisfied his instructors that the likelihood of him or her falling away was negligent, they were promoted to the rank of catechumen. During their time as a catechumen individuals had to show that they were abstaining from pagan worship and immorality. The council of Elvira alluded to the time an individual remained a catechumen (around two years). The third phase was when individuals became competente. They had shown through diligence that they were willing to persevere and had been enlightened into the mysteries of the faith. The individual then receives seven scruitinies. [32] After this, the candidate is anointed on the chest and back. The candidates renounced Satan and were then baptized, confirmed and partook of the Eucharist.

Baptism and Washings and Annointings

Both Latter-day Saints and Catholics believe that it is a requirement for a man or woman to be baptized if they are to be saved in the kingdom of God. For Catholics, baptism is the introductory Sacrament that allows a man or woman to begin their Christian life. For Mormons, baptism is the first saving ordinance they take part in. The temple ordinance of washing and anointing bears a closer similarity to the Catholic Sacrament of Baptism when Chrism and the first oil of Catechumens are included. In both rites men and women are washed and anointed and pronounced clean. Both rites are symbolic of a new phase of Christian life and often in both traditions new names are given. What will follow is first a discussion of Catholic baptism and subsequent annointings followed by an examination of LDS washings and anointing.

The Sacrament of Baptism and Other Things

Baptism is performed as a symbol of “washing and purification.”[33] Baptism is beginning of the sacramental journey in Catholicism. The candidate[34] is given new clothes, a candle to light their way, water to help them grow and oil for strength and companions to accompany them through a life lifetime of Christian commitment and discipleship,[35] however, after being anointed with water, the ordinance is still not complete until two anointings with consecrated oil occur. These anointings are first, Oil of Catechumens[36] and second, the Oil of Chrism.[37] These anointings serve to strengthen a person for a “lifetime journey of commitment to discipleship with Christ.”[38]

The Chrism has been blessed by a bishop and shows that the new Christian shares the mission of Christ as a priest, prophet, and king. The prayer that accompanies the anointing is as follows: “God the Father of our lord Jesus Christ has freed you from sin given you a new birth by water and the Holy Spirit and welcomed you into his holy people he now anoints you with the chrism of salvation As Christ was anointed priest, prophet and king so may you live always as a member of his body sharing everlasting life”[39]

Cyril of Jerusalem related the significance of this anointing; “the oil is applied symbolically to your forehead and your other senses and you were first anointed on the forehead then on your ears then on the nostrils afterwards on your breast.”[40] The priest applies his thumb to the ear and mouth of person and says a prayer where he blesses the person to hear the word of God and be willing to proclaim his or her faith.

This ordinance in the sixth century was performed as follows: “I sign your forehead. . . I sign your eyes so that they may see the glory of God. I sign your ears so that you may hear the voice of the Lord. I sign your nostrils so that you may breathe the fragrance of Christ. I sign your lips so that you may speak the words of life. I sign your heart so that you may believe in the Holy Trinity. I sign your shoulders so that you may bear the yoke of Christ’s service in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost so that you may live forever and ever (saeculum saeculborum)”[41] At the time of confirmation, sacred oil is applied to the “forehead, the eyes, ear, the nose, mouth, chest, the hands and the feet, to cleanse them from sin committed through their use.”[42]

After the anointing in the Roman rite, the person who was anointed is reborn and is given new white clothing in symbolism of purity and sinlessness. At an infant’s baptism, the infant is given a new white dress, and the priest says, “you have become a new creation and have clothed yourself in Christ. See in this white garment the outward sign of your Christian dignity. With your family and friends to help you by word and example, bring that dignity unstained into the everlasting life of heaven.”[43]

In Catholic tradition, it is the practice of some that any notable change in condition, should be accompanied by a new name that is given.[44] It is also symbolic of a new life that the person is entering into. The name that is chosen by the candidate is normally a name that his held in reverence and honor. Also at baptism, there can be a new name given. An example of this can be found in the Acts of St. Balsamus. “By my paternal name, I am called Balsamus, but by the spiritual name which I received at baptism, I am known as Peter.”[45] Saint John Chrysostom believed that the name given a person should not be to “gratify fathers or grandfathers or other family connections by giving their names, but rather choose the names of holy men conspicuous for virtue and for their courage before God.”[46]

When monks or nuns entered into the monastery or covenant they accept a new name, normally a saint.[47] Also, the Pope assumes a new name when he enters his office. The first Pope to take a new papal name was Pope John II, because he felt his Christian name of Mercurius was inappropriate. Pope John II felt this way because the successor to St. Peter should not carry the name of a deity belonging to a pagan religion.

Washings and Anointings

Latter-day saints are washed with pure water and anointed with holy oil in sacred rites within the temple. They are washed and anointed symbolically. The blessings of this ordinance can be categorized into three different areas: spiritual, intellectual and physical. Patrons are washed and anointed to think clearly, to discern the words of God, to perceive between reality and falsehoods, to abstain from speaking deceivingly and to hold true to virtuous principles. Latter-day Saints are also blessed to bear the burdens they will face in life and to run and not be weary and walk and not be tired. Internal organs are also blessed symbolically to function correctly and be strong and healthy. Lastly the washing and anointing blesses Saints to be able to justly defend truth and virtue and to multiply and replenish the earth.[48]

Joseph Smith taught that a new name was preparatory to receiving endowments.[49] Latter-day Saints are given a new name that they are told to always remember, that the new name is sacred and they are told to never reveal that name except in the temple.[50] Within Latter-day Saint theology it is believed that Noah is also named Gabriel, that Adam is also named Michael, and that Jesus Christ was named Jehovah.[51] It should also be noted that Abram’s name was changed to Abraham.[52] In the Book of Mormon, Laminates who converted to the gospel of Jesus Christ became Anti-Nephi-Lehies.[53] Saul’s name was changed to Paul. Jacob was given the name Israel. Also at baptism Christians take the name of Christ in symbolism of committing their life to Christ. A new name is often symbolic of “a new identity. . . a new life,” and “a new beginning. It’s a refreshing of things.” [54] A new name can also be symbolic of “a special call, marked by the reception of [the] new name, which denotes the conferring of a special divine mission.”[55]

Holy Orders, Catholic Vestments and LDS Temple Clothing

The dress of the Catholic clergy bears remarkable similarity to the clothing worn by Latter-day Saints in the temple. Catholic vestments according to Marriott should be, “appropriate to the most solemn offices of the holy ministry.” “During the primitive age,” we find recognition of white vestments as being “proper garb of Christian ministry.”[56] John Widstoe said of the clothing that Latter-day Saints wear in the temple that “all are dressed alike in white. White is the symbol of purity. . . . The uniform dress symbolizes that before God our Father in Heaven, all men are equal.” Everyone in the temple sits “side by side . . . and are of equal importance if they live righteously before the Lord God.”[57] The following two sections should allow the reader to examine in detail both Catholic clothing and LDS temple clothing.

Holy Orders and Catholic Vestments

Christ has made the entire Church “a kingdom, of priests for his God ad Father.”[58] Through the Sacrament of Baptism and Confirmation the “faithful are consecrated to be . . . a holy priesthood.”[59] The common priesthood of faithful is exercised through “a life of faith, hope and charity, a life” lived “according to the Spirit.”[60] Through the ministerial priesthood of Catholicism the priesthood of Christ is made manifest by the building up and the leading of the Church.

There are three orders of priesthood within Catholicism: Episcopal, Priests, and Deacons. Bishops are seen as the successors of the ancient apostles and as such only they can convey the sacrament of Holy Orders onto another person. A man who believes that God is calling him to the priesthood does not have a right to receive the sacrament of Holy Orders. They are under obligation to submit themselves to the authority of the Church which has the right to call someone to receive orders.[61]

Depending upon the rank of the Catholic clergy the color of their vestments differs. Also the material of the vestments differs. Also different parts of the Catholic vestments can only be worn by certain members of the clergy at certain times. Some parts of the vestments worn by Catholic clergy are a hats, girdles, stoles, simars, rochets, mozzettas and matellettas. All are symbolic of the authority of the priesthood of the wearer and as such strict limitations are placed on their wearing.

One writer chronicles a record of priestly headgear as being, “a square cap, with three corners or prominences rising from its crown, and having, for the most part, a tassel.”[62]A girdle or cincture is part of the Catholic vestments that is “like a sash” and signifies “promptitude in executing the commands of God, exactness in religious observances, and watchfulness in regard to our eternal salvation.”[63] Other items include a stole which is part of the full liturgical raiment that is worn around the shoulders but depending upon the degree of priesthood it is placed in different location on the body. A deacon wears it “over the left shoulder and fastened on the right side.”[64] While a priest or Bishop would “wear it crossed over his breast.”[65] While a member who holds the priesthood is dressing in this stole they say a prayer asking that the “immortality which I lost through the transgression of my first parents”[66] be restored. The stole is also a symbol being in the service of Christ or in taking on the yoke of Christ. Catholic clergy also wear the simar which is “a kind of ecclesiastical morning gown. However, during the past century, it became customary to wear it outside of the house.”[67] The simar has thirty three buttons each symbolizing a year of Jesus Christ’s earthly life. There are also five buttons that are placed on each cuff that are symbolic of the five wounds that Christ received. Monks and nuns also take a habit when they make the covenants as they enter into their new lives.[68]

Another interesting note is that clergy, chiefly nuns and monks are buried in the vestments.[69] Priests are also buried in “cassock and the apparel appropriate to his rank also with the tonsure and biretta.”[70] “All prelates who are entitled by law to wear the mitre – Cardinals, Bishops and Abbots – should be buried with the mitre on; those who wear it by general or special privilege, as Prelates and Canons, should not be laid out and buried with the mitre on, but with the biretta.”[71] Priests are buried in their vestments because “a priestly or Episcopal character is what is the most important in the person of an ecclesiastic, and, according to the teaching of the Church, is destined to last forever, the law is that the body of a dead priest or Bishop should be dressed in his sacerdotal or Episcopal vestments. . . . By sacerdotal or Episcopal vestments, we mean such ornaments as the Prelate or priest should put on while preparing for the celebration of solemn High Mass, which is the greatest act that a Prelate or priest can perform.”[72]

Latter-day Saint temple Clothing and Vestments

Latter-day Saint temple clothing is patterned after the vestments of the Aaronic priesthood found in Exodus 28. The high priest wore a robe, an ephod, a girdle, and a miter. Latter-day Saints wear a robe, an apron, a sash. Men wear a cap and women a veil. [73] Both men and women wear white slippers in similitude of Moses removing his shoes when he was on holy ground. Latter-day Saint women wear white dresses and men wear white shirts, pants and ties. Latter-day Saints who have been endowed are buried in their temple clothing.

Latter-day Saints receive underclothes called garments after they are washed and anointed. Latter-day Saints are instructed to wear the garment throughout their life.[74] Latter-day Saints are given a covenant from the Lord that if they are true and faithful to the covenants they have made and will make, their garment will serve as a protection both temporally and spiritually.[75]

The garment is not only a reminder of the covenants made in the temple but also serves as a symbol to teach different truths.[76] The garment can serve to remind Latter-day Saints of Christ’s atonement.[77] The garment also is an allusion to the people who are clothed in “white raiment’s.” [Rev 3:4-55] The garment is a covering of nakedness that can be seen as an admonition to prepare for judgment. The garment is also a reminder to Latter-day Saints to be chaste and modest. The garment is a reminder that Saints rely ultimately upon Christ to provide for them.[78] Lastly when a person is clothed in the garment they are enacting numerous scriptural metaphors.[79]

Matrimony and Celestial Marriage

Marriage for both Catholics and Latter-day Saints finds its authorship in God. Both ordinances can only be performed by a person who has the right from God to do so. Both Catholics and Mormons hold that God has ordained that marriage should only be between a man and a woman. Catholics and Latter-day Saints both kneel at a holy altar when they are married. In both faiths marriage is an institution that should be transformative and enduring.

The Sacrament of Matrimony

Marriage within the Catholic tradition establishes a bond between man and woman. In the Catholic tradition “God himself is the author of Marriage.”[80] Marriage is not a human institution but a divine institution. “Both human and Christian society is closely bound up with the healthy state of conjugal and family life.” The union of man and woman is symbolic of God’s “absolute and unfailing” love for mankind. Marriage is symbolic of the relationship that is found between the Incarnation of God and the human race.[81]

The altar is the central place of worship and ritual in the Catholic Church. It is the place where covenants and vows are made before God.[82] The Marriage promise is “ratified by the ring, the kiss, and the handclasp of the couple,” with “joined hands on the gospel book.”[83] Consent within matrimony for Catholics means that a man or woman needs to be baptized, and to be free from constraint and not “impeded by natural law or ecclesiastical law.” Man and woman take each other as husband and wife and become one flesh. Marriage “aims at a deeply personal unity, a unity that, beyond union in one flesh, leads to forming one heart and soul.” The marriage of two practicing Catholics ideally takes place during the Mass. The Sacrament of Marriage includes a “bond between the spouses which is perpetual and exclusive” it “is sealed by God Himself.”[84]

Sealings or Celestial Marriage

The zenith of temple worship for many Latter-day Saints is the sealing ordinance between man and woman. In this sacred ordinance men and women are married through the priesthood for not only their lives here on earth but also in heaven. The purpose of this ordinance is to tie together father and son, mother and daughter, and the living and the dead from all generations of man. This tying together could not be accomplished without the power of God sanctioning and authorizing it. The feelings that should overcome the easily spoken words of the sealing are ones of profound responsibility, opportunity for self and the power and weight of the authority that is present.[85] Celestial marriage for those involved becomes a kind of divinely inspired stewardship between husband and wife. The sealing of husband and wife sustain family life and help to give strength and courage in times of death.

The marriage is performed in one of the sealing rooms of the temple. In the center of the room there is an altar. There are mirrors in most sealing rooms behind both the bride and groom. These mirrors give the illusion of eternity. The groom will kneel on one side of the altar and the bride on the other. The sealer then who is at the head of the altar will then marry the couple. The ceremony is rather quick. The sealer asks both the bride and groom if they are willing to keep the commandments and covenants they have made. They answer in the affirmative in the presence of “God and angels”[86] that they will do so, the sealer then seals them in marriage.[87]

The Mass, Eucharist and Endowment

For the believing Catholic the celebration and progression of the Mass and Holy Eucharist[88] ends fundamentally in the literal presence of God. The presence of God can be noted by the genuflecting and bowing found when a Catholic enters the church. For Latter-day Saints the temple endowment allows them for a short period of time to symbolically enter into the presence of God. The Mass and Endowment are both full of ritualistic behaviors that have their roots in ancient Christian worship that take the worshiper into the presence of God. What follows is first and examination of the Mass and Eucharist and then the LDS endowment.

The Mass and Eucharist

Medieval and Renaissance Church worship transformed churches into “unearthly places of glory. The best architects, sculptors, and painters were commissioned by the Church to build these “celestial ‘halls of state.”[89] It was hoped that people would feel as though they were in the presence of the God for a period of time. The intent was to make them feel for a short period of time like they were in heaven.

The most sacred thing that is celebrated in the Church is the sacrament of the Eucharist. It is here that all “Christians come together” to take part in the “Eucharistic celebration.”[90] In this celebration each person plays a role,[91] “readers, those who bring up the offerings, those who give communion, and the whole people whose ‘Amen’[92] manifests their participation.”[93] The Offertory is a remembrance of the sacrifice and commitment of Melchizedek. The altar in the Church represents not just the Lord’s table but also the altar of sacrifice on which Christ’s body lays and Christ Himself.[94] Overall the Eucharist is “thanksgiving and praise to the Father; the sacrificial memorial of Christ and his Body;” and “the presence of Christ by the power of his word and Spirit.”[95]

Processions from place to place inside of the Church and outside of the Church were intended to remind congregants of the “stages of life, the continual movement to a better and progressive state of being.”[96] In effect it was a “pilgrimage through this vale of misery.”[97] Banners representing Christ and Satan are present intending to represent one of two choices in leadership while a person goes through mortality. Throughout the ceremony the priest may remove some parts of his clothing and put on others.[98]

The priest at different times may represent different people in proxy. “Symbolically, the priest represents the people when he turns to the east, toward God, and he represents the Lord when he faces the faithful in the church.”[99] In the presence of a “higher being” the faithful “stood with hands uplifted and facing east. . . . with eyes fixed in the direction of the rising sun.”[100] In today’s worship the priest may say prayers with hands uplifted close to his body with elbows bent. During the Oremus, the Prefactus, the Canon, and the Pater Noster the priest “stands with his hands upraised . . . facing east, and originally the faithful , too, stood facing east and with arms lifted up”[101] petitioning the Lord. Anciently this was the manner that people prayed in.[102]

A ceremony that is suggestive of the creation is the old Paschal Vigil of the Catholic ritual at Easter time. This is the high point of the liturgical year within Catholic tradition. The rite began with the congregation sitting in complete darkness. From this gloomy darkness the “lux Christi” was lit and then the other candles were lit. As each member of the congregations candle was lit, they would exclaim shouts of joy and triumph and sing jubilantly. This seems to symbolize not only the celebration out of darkness but also Christ coming as a light to illuminate a dark world. The creation story was read as well as the account of the flood and the exodus out of Egypt. Parables about the progression of man that spoke to birth, rebirth, hope and despair were also told.[103]

In the early Church there was a practice of keeping men and women separated in the Church just as they were kept in different locations in the temple at Jerusalem.[104] During service in the Church women had either to stand on different sides of the aisle in the chapel or they were restricted to a balcony which overlooked he main assembly hall.[105] It was also considered proper for women to conceal their heads with a veil or some kind of covering during Mass.[106] This is a custom which has largely become obsolete but is still customary in some Catholic congregations of South America and Europe.[107]

The Endowment

The endowment is a dramatization of the Creation, the fall, and Adam and Adam and Eve’s subsequent trials in the lone and dreary world. It also covers the sending of angelic messengers to humanity.[108] The characters in this dramatization are God the Father, Jehovah (Jesus Christ) Michael the arch angel (Adam) Eve, Satan, and angelic messengers. [109] In the temple endowment latter-day Saints learn what they need to know that will allow them to pass by the angels guarding the entrance to heaven. [110]

In a very real sense the endowment is representative of an upward progression towards God culminating in a patron entering into the celestial room. [111] The endowment takes around seventy-five minutes to complete. In the LDS endowment men and women are seated separately.[112] Men are on one side of the room and women on the other. LDS women veil their faces during parts of the temple endowment. Saints are instructed to imagine that they are Adam or Eve. During the endowment Latter-day Saints move through different rooms to symbolize the progression of man. [113]

The drama records God instructing Jehovah to create the world. Jehovah then goes to Michael and informs him of the Father’s command.[114] Under the direction of God Jehovah and Michael create the earth. Creation begins by creating order out of chaos. The drama then goes through the creation account found in Genesis.[115] It also discusses the ministering of angelic messengers to Adam and Eve subsequent to the fall where they are instructed in the things they and their posterity must do to be readmitted to the father’s presence.[116]

There are many rooms in the temple. The rooms that are used in the endowment are a creation room, [117] a garden room[118], a Telestial room[119] which is a representation our fallen world that Adam and Eve were thrust into. From there Latter-day Saints move into a terrestrial room[120] and finally the celestial room[121]. Each of these rooms served as a visual representation of what Saints learn through the dramatization. The art work of early LDS temples shows the amazing dedication that Saints put into temples as well as the importance placed on visual aids to telling the purpose of life here on earth.

In the endowment Latter-Day Saints covenant to obey certain laws of the gospel.[122] Latter-day Saints make covenants of personal virtue, benevolence and of commitment to Christ’s kingdom. Saints covenant to be chaste, charitable, compassionate, tolerant, and pure. Further Saints are commanded not to gossip or speak ill of the Lord’s anointed. “They agree to devote their talents and means to spread the gospel, to strengthen the Church, and to prepare the earth for the return of Jesus Christ. Through personal promises to their Heavenly Father made in the . . . temple, the Saints expand the meaning of being a covenant people.”[123]

The culmination of the temple endowment for Latter-day Saints is when they are taken through a cloth veil that has separated them from the celestial room. Symbolically at this point for a limited period of time Latter-day saints have been granted entrance into the presence of God. In the celestial room Latter-day saints are given the opportunity to reflect on matters of importance in their lives.

The Celestial room in the LDS temple is easily the most ornate room in the temple. Symbolically for a Latter-day Saint entering the celestial symbolizes entering into the Kingdom and presence of God. The celestial room is typically the most brightly lit room of the temple symbolizing the glory of God. The celestial room is often higher in elevation than the rest of the rooms used in the endowment. The celestial room is a representation of God’s glory and in its exquisite beauty and serenity a person may not only meditate but feel the “the beauty of holiness.” [Psalms 29:2]

Conclusion

The Sacraments, rites and ordinates of both Catholicism and Mormonism are holy and sacred to those who hold them true. For both Mormons and Latter-day Saints these acts are efficacious signs of God’s grace. They are the way that the divine is made manifest in the lives of believers. They are acts that are worthy of respect and reverence. The authority of the priesthood is essential to both Mormons and Catholics for the Sacraments or ordinances to be operative. Both of these world religions believe their worship is based in the worship of the early Christian Church. While the meaning of the Sacraments and ordinances may differ the similarities between the Sacraments and ordinances are striking similar in many respects. Overall the reader should come away from with an understanding of what the history of the Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church are and what Latter-day Saint temple worship is.

Appendix A

Things Latter-day Saints Might Find Interesting

Diptychs

Diptychs could be made of wood, ivory, bone or metal. They were often considered a “highly ornamented”[124] kind of notebook. The diptych would be read during the Divine Liturgy , Eucharist and by the Priest during the Liturgy of Preparation. One side of the diptych had the names of the living on it and the other side of the diptych had the names of the dead. Diptychs did not disappear from Catholic worship until the twelfth century.[125] The diptychs contained the names of those who were seriously ill or had special considerations that needed to prayed for.[126] These names were originally read aloud. The requiem mass may be the last hold over that may truly be a remnant of work for the dead in Catholic ritual and rite.

Prayer in the Temple

Prayer in the Latter-day Saint temple worship happens around an altar together as a group.[127] Upon the Altar there is a box that has names submitted by temple patrons of people they care about who are in need. Patrons assemble in the true order of prayer[128] and pray for the people whose names are in the box. They are instructed that if any in the circle harbor animosity toward another they should not participate in the prayer. According to a reminiscence of Zebedee Coltrin Latter-day Saints received instruction from Joseph Smith to “prepare their minds. He told them to kneel and pray with uplifted hands.”[129] They repeat the words of the temple officiator who leads the saints in prayer.

Prayer circles for Latter-day Saints are occasions where they can covenant to live more fully the commandments of the Lord.[130] The primary purpose of any prayer is to commune with God and to receive the instruction and influence of God.[131] A prayer circle allows men and women to gain great spiritual strength, facilitate the bonds of fellowship, loyalty and develop a greater sense of unity.

Knocking Three Times

During the year of Jubilee the “Pope carries out a . . . rite when he knocks three times with a golden hammer on the Holy Door.”[132] Typically the pope approaches the door and in Latin sings, “This gate of the Lord”, everyone who is assemble replies “into which the righteous shall enter.” The Pope then continues, “I will come into thy house Lord”, and everyone assembled responds “I will worship towards thy holy temple”. The pope then concludes with, “Open to me the gates of righteousness,” and all respond “I will go into them, and I will praise the Lord” After the three hammer strikes, the Holy Door is opened. The pope then enters, and the interior of the Basilica is fully illuminated in brilliant glory.[133]


Footnotes

[1] The Sacraments, and rites discussed herein will be taken from the Church prior to the 2nd Vatican Council. It should be noted by the reader that the Sacraments and rites described herein do not accurately reflect contemporary worship.

[2] Marcus von Wellnitz, “The Catholic Liturgy and the Mormon Temple,” BYU Studies 21:1 (Winter, 1981): 3-36 http://byustudies.byu.edu/showTitle.aspx?title=71 (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[3] Some people may feel that discussing anything whatsoever that deals with the LDS temple ceremony in inappropriate. The only thing that Latter-day Saints covenant not to divulge are certain names, signs and tokens. These will not be addressed at all because they are things that I have covenanted not to disclose. http://www.watergeek.net/church/talks/Widstoe%20--%20temple%20worship.pdf accessed 3/8/2011

[4] Online Etymology Dictionary, “Sacred,” http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=sacred (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[5] Oxford Dictionary, “Sacred,” http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/sacred (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[6] Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “Sacred,” http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sacred (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[7] Furthermore “The Holy Spirit prepares the faithful for the sacraments by the Word of God and the faith which welcomes that word in well disposed hearts. Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and express it.” “Catechism of the Catholic Church,” Part 2, Section 1, Chapter 1, Article 2, In Brief http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P35.HTM (accessed 3/3/2011)

[8] This Sacrament will not be addressed in this work

[9] This Sacrament will not be addressed in this work

[10] “The seven sacraments touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian’s life of faith. There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of spiritual life.” “Catechism of the Catholic Church,” Part 2, Section 2 http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.HTM (accessed 3/3/2011)

[11] “Catechism of the Catholic Church” Part 2. Section 1, Chapter 1, Article 2, III The Sacraments of Faith, http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P32.HTM (accessed 3/3/2011)

[12] Examples of this can be seen by a simple search of the internet. Websites exist that purported purpose is to inform people about Latter-day Saint temple worship. In reality these sites put a spin on the LDS temple worship that does not treat what happens in the temple as sacred but at times with blatant contempt and at other times with subtle derision.

[13] This lack of conversation defining what Mormons truly believe has left sacred things to be explained or defined by those who don’t know what they are talking about or have an axe to grind against the Church. The result of this has been a gross misinterpretation or even worse defilement of the sacred. An example of this can be seen by a simple Google search of Mormon temples. This search provides very little information to a person seeking to understand why the temple is sacred but provides a plethora of misinformation.

[14] "Conversations will continue whether or not we choose to participate in them. But we cannot stand on the sidelines while others, including our critics, attempt to define what the church teaches." M. Russell Ballard, “Using Media to Support the Work of the Church” Brigham Young University Hawaii, Commencement Address, Dec 15, 2007 http://devotional.byuh.edu/node/145 (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[15] M. Russell Ballard, “Using Media to Support the Work of the Church” Brigham Young University Hawaii, Commencement Address, Dec 15, 2007 http://devotional.byuh.edu/node/145 (accessed 7 Feb 2011) The debate to declare the word of the Lord by ardent members of the church can be seen in the war of words that has ensued over the http://www.wikipedia.org/ page concerning Latter-day Saints. The Deseret News published an article that expresses the growing need for active Latter-day Saints to participate in conversations that are taking place. Michael De Groote, “Wiki Wars: In battle to define beliefs, Mormons and foes wage battle on Wikipedia.” Deseret News, 30 Jan 2011, http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700105517/Wiki-Wars-In-battle-to-define-beliefs-Mormons-and-foes-wage-battle-on-Wikipedia.html?pg=1 (accessed 7 Feb 2011)

[16] Boyd K. Packer explains, “The ordinances and ceremonies of the temple are simple. They are beautiful. They are sacred. They are kept confidential lest they be given to those who are unprepared. Curiosity is not a preparation. Deep interest itself is not a preparation. Preparation for the ordinances includes preliminary steps: faith, repentance, baptism, confirmation, worthiness, a maturity and dignity worthy of one who comes invited as a guest into the house of the Lord.” Boyd K. Packer, “The Holy Temple, ” http://lds.org/temples/purpose/holy/0,11707,2028-1,00.html (accessed 1 March 2011)

[17] In speaking of things that are sacred they should be shared only with people who will respect them. That means talking to the right person, at the right time, and in the right setting are all prerequisites of talking about and sharing the sacred. “No person is at liberty to reveal anything that takes place here to any mortal upon the face of the earth, anythin unless they know that person to be a good one, and one that the Lord is well pleased with.”Brigham Young as recorded in William Clayton in Diary kept for Heber C. Kimball 2 January 1846

[18] At almost every door they knock at LDS missionaries share the story of how God the Father and Jesus Christ appeared to Joseph Smith. This is a sacred event but is spoken and shared with almost anyone a Mormon meets. Another frequently shared sacred event is the atonement and subsequent resurrection of Jesus Christ. These sacred events are shared by Latter-day Saints and these sacred things are not only rejected but often scoffed at and or ridiculed. If Latter-day Saints do not share things about the temple which they believe are sacred why do they then share these far more sacred events knowing the consequences?

[19] Brigham Young approved a motion to publish the “the Endowments or an outline of it.”Woodruff, Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 5: 124. Furthermore a person should rely on the promptings of the Holy Spirit to help decide what to share and who to share it with.

[20] “He said doubtless with most of the present assembly it is the beginning of a new era, in their lives – they have come to place the time they never saw before. . . The scenery through which you have passed is actually putting you in laying before you a picture or map by which you are to travel through life, and obtain an entrance into the celestial kingdom hereafter.” Amasa Lyman, as sited in 21 Dec 1845 William Clayton Diary

[21] What is taught in the LDS temple ordinances and rites can be seen not only in the Bible but in apocalyptic and pseudepigrphical literature. These teach the existence of a multiplicity of Gods, the creation out of Chaos instead of ex nilo, the pre existence of spirits before they came to Earth, the creation of the earth, of a general battle between good and evil, the garden of Eden and Adam and Eve, the necessity of opposites, Satan being cast out of heaven with those who follow him, The fall of Adam and Eve, spirits needing vicarious ordinances , the resurrection, the millennial Kingdom of God, the role that prophets play, and certain key secretes and mysteries that are required for earnest seekers to enter heaven. David John Buerger, “The Development of the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony,” Dialouge,20 (Winter 1987), 7Joseph Smith gave a sermon on 1 May 1842 that had overtones referring to temple worship, “The keys are certain signs and words. . .which cannot be revealed. . .till the Temple is completed—The rich can only get them in the Temple. . . .There are signs in heaven, earth, and hell, the Elders must know them all to be endowed with power. . . .The devil knows many signs but does not know the sign of the Son of Man, or Jesus. No one can truly say he knows God until he has handled something, and this can only be in the Holy of Holies” Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook, comps. And eds.., The Words of Joseph Smith: The Contemporary Accounts of the Nauvoo Discourses of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Provo, Utah: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1980) Also see Doctrine and Covenants 129:4-9

[22] While attend connotes passive participation the Sacrament of Reconciliation is passive. The penitent is far from passive. They confess sins, ask for forgiveness, receive absolution, and perform the penance assigned by the priest.

[23] Connell, The Seven Sacraments, p 114-115

[24] For more information see The Rite of Baptism (Collegeville, Minn.: The Liturgical Press, 1970), 9-10 It should also be noted that there are two rites of Baptism: One for infants or children under five and the other for adults and children over five.

[25] Ta Vita Pachomii 7, 22 as cited by Von Wellnetz.

[26]For more information see: “Temple Recommend Questions,” http://www.lds-mormon.com/new_temple_questions.shtml (accessed 2 March 2011)

[27] Boyd K. Packer, “The Holy Temple,” http://lds.org/temples/purpose/holy/0,11707,2028-1,00.html (Accessed 1 March 2011)

[28] Temple worship in this context is leaving out the practice of baptism for the dead.

[29] See Salt Lake School of the Prophets Minute Book 1883, (Palm Desert, CA: ULC Press, 1981)

[30] Connell, The Seven Sacraments, p 153

[31] “Catechumen,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ accessed 2/17/2011

[32] These include the giving of the candidates name, the ceremony of exorcism, reception of the Gospel, the Symbol and the Our Father.

[33] The rise of Baptism (Collegeville. Minn.: The Liturgical Press, 1970) pp. 9-10

[34] For the most part Baptism as discussed with regards to both LDS and Catholic oridances and sacraments will be referring to adult converts.

[35] Sandra DeGidio, “The Sacrament of Baptism: Celebrating the Embrace of God,” http://www.americancatholic.org/Newsletters/CU/ac0389.asp (accessed 3/19/2011)

[36] The anointing with the oil of Catechumens is recording in several sources as an anointing of the entire body..‘The deacon removes from the catechumen all clothes, ornaments, earrings and whatever they wear ’ . . . ‘The baptizer pours the oil for anointing into the cup of his hands and rubs it on the whole body of the catechumen, also in between the fingers of his hands and the toes of his feet, and his limbs, and his front and his back.” Ritus Orientalium, pp. 279-28 see also; H.Denzinger, Ritus Orientalium, vol.I, W├╝rzburg 1863, pp. 192-214; Ritus Orientalium, pp. 302-316; Ritus Orientalium, pp. 267-279; and Ritus Orientalium, pp. 334-350, as cited in “Annointing with the oil of catechumens.” http://www.ministryforwomen.org/traditio/deac_bap.asp (accessed 3/8/2011)

[37] Chrism is a mixture of olive oil and balsam

[38] Sandra DeGidio, “The Sacrament of Baptism: Celebrating the Embrace of God,” http://www.americancatholic.org/Newsletters/CU/ac0389.asp (accessed 3/19/2011)

[39] The rite of Baptism, 9-10 Saeculum saeculborum expresses the idea of eternity. See Strong’s Greek Concordance http://www.htmlbible.com/sacrednamebiblecom/kjvstrongs/ (accessed 3/19/2011)

[40] Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures: 21. 3,4

[41] McCormack, Christian Initiation, p 50

[42] Francis J. Connell, The Seven Sacraments – What they are – What they do! ( Glen Rock, N.J. .: Paulist Press, 1966) p 59

[43] The rite of Baptism,, p 11

[44] The taking of a new name is not required and Catholics do not lose their other names when a new name is taken.

[45] “Names, Christian,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/

[46] “Names, Christian,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/

[47] It should be noted that this practice is not universal.

[48] See Bancroft 357-358 and William Clayton, Diary kept for Heber C. Kimball, 16 Dec. 1845

[49] "Joseph [Smith] tells us that this new name is a key-word, which can only be obtained through the endowments.” Joseph Smith as cited by Charles C. Rich Journal of Discourses, Vol.19, p.250 - p.251

[50] “The Name that was given to Adam was more Ancient than he was[:] the Name Adam was given him because he was the first man[;] but his New Name pertained to the Holy Priesthood & as I before stated is more Ancient than he was ­ . . . [if I] should want to address the thorne[sic] to enquire after Ancient things which transpired on planets that rol[l]ed away befofore[sic] this Plannet[sic] came into existence- I should use my New Name which is Ancient & referred to Ancient things – should I wish to Enquire for modern present things I should use my own name which refers to present things[. If] I Should want to enquire for modern future things – I would use the 3rd Name.” Brigham Young cited in “General Record of the Seventies. Record, Book B.” John D. Lee, principle scribe. LDS Archives. Also see Brigham Young cited by William Clayton, “Minutes of Sunday December 28, 1845) LDS Church Archives. Within Latter-day Saint theology it is believed that Noah is also named Gabriel, that Adam is also name Michael, and that Jesus Christ was named Jehovah.

[51] As with all glorified beings, our Lord has a new name in celestial exaltation, a name known to and comprehended by those only who know God in the sense that they have become as he is and have eternal life. See Rev. 2:12-17. Thus, Christ's "new name" shall be written upon all those who are joint-heirs with him (Rev. 3:12), and shall signify that they have become even as he is and he is even as the Father. (3 Ne. 28:10.)" Bruce R. McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, Vol.3 (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1973), 568

[52] Jennifer C. Lane, “The Lord Will Redeem His People: Adoptive Covenant and Redemption in the Old Testament” http://rsc.byu.edu/archived/sperry-symposium-classics-old-testament/lord-will-redeem-his-people-adoptive-covenant-and-r (accessed 3/11/2011)

[53] "Those who were converted to the gospel were given a new name, Anti-Nephi-Lehies, 'and were no more called Laminates.'" William E. Berrett, Teachings of the Book of Mormon, (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1952), 174

[54] "A new name shows a new status or the establishment of a new relationship. This new relationship may express the dependence of the person who receives a new name, but at the same time re naming may also indicate a type of adoption." (Journal of Book of Mormon Studies: The Lord Will Redeem His People: Adoptive Covenant and Redemption in the Old Testament and Book of Mormon, p.42,43); Bruce R. McConkie, The Mortal Messiah, Vol.2, p.124) Hugh Nibley, Teachings of the Book of Mormon, Semester 1, p.480, 448-9 as cited John W. Walsh, “The New Name,” http://www.lightplanet.com/mormons/temples/new_name.html (accessed 3/8/2011)

[55] John W. Walsh, “The New Name,” http://www.lightplanet.com/mormons/temples/new_name.html (accessed 3/8/2011)

[56] Marriott, Vesiarum Christianum, pp, iv-v; xxxiii - xxxiv

[57] Widstoe, “Looking Toward the Temple,” pg 58

[58] Catechism of the Catholic Church ,1544 http://www.vatican.va/archive/compendium_ccc/documents/archive_2005_compendium-ccc_en.html (accessed 3/11/2011)

[59] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1546

[60] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1547

[61] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1577-1588

[62] O’Brien, History of the Mass and Its Ceremonies, p 52-53

[63] O’Brien, History of the Mass and Its Ceremonies, p 42-43; Martin, Worship in the Early Church, p 37

[64] O’ Brien History of the Mass and Its Ceremonies pg 56

[65] Walker, The Ritual “reason Why,” p 42 Dunney, The Mass, p 360

[66] O’ Brien History of the Mass and Its Ceremonies p 47

[67] John Abel Nainfa, Costume of prelates of the Catholic Church (Baltimore, MD: John Murphy Co., 1909),47

[68] Tresa Edmunds, “Mormon underware keeps body and soul together,” The Guardian UK, 1 March 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/mar/01/mormon-underwear (accessed 3 March 2011)

[69] The Catholic Encyclopedia, ed. Charles G. Hebermann, 15 vols. (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908) 3: 72

[70] “In What Color Are Priests to be Buried?” http://wdtprs.com/blog/2008/10/quaeritur-in-what-color-are-priests-to-be-buried/ (accessed 1 March 2011) Another excellent resource for gaining an understanding of the clerical robes of the Catholic Church is John Abel Nainfa’s Costume of prelates of the Catholic church (Baltimore, MD: John Murphy Co., 1909) See also Rituale Romanum and Titulus VII, Caput I De exequiis

[71] John A. Nainfa, Costume of prelates of the Catholic Church,115

[72] John A. Nainfa, Costume of prelates of the Catholic Church ,156

[73] Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Utah, 1540-1886 (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1964; 1st ed. 1889, vol 26 in Bancroft’s History of the Pacific States of North America Series),357-358 The First Presidency endorsed Bancroft’s research project and book. In a statement written 1884 to stake presidents and bishops they said “Utah is to receive special attention: one whole volume will be devoted to this territory, and the people and church which have founded and established it. This volume it is confidently expected will be authentic and calculated to extend a knowledge of the true condition of our affairs. We therefore, commend the work to your support and patronage.” John Taylor, George Q. Cannon, “Letter to Presidents of Stakes and Bishops, Nov 1,1884” LDS Archives

[74] See First Presidency Letter, 10 Oct. 1988 as cited by Carlos Asay, “The Temple Garment ‘An Outward Expression of an Inward Commitment.” http://lds.org/ensign/1997/08/the-temple-garment-an-outward-expression-of-an-inward-commitment?lang=eng&query=asay+garment (Acccessed 3/29/2011)

[75] “Elder Kimball . . . spoke of Elder Richards being protected at Carthage Jail – having on the robe, while Joseph & Hyrum [Smith]. And Elder Taylor were shot to pieces[.]” 21 Dec 1845 William Clayton Diary. See also Bancroft, 357-358 and John Smith as recorded 21 dec 1845 William Clayton Diary kept for Heber C. Kimball The garment only has spiritual benefits as long as the wearer is striving to live worthly. Hugh Nibley, “Sacred Vestments: A Preliminary Report,” http://www.cumorah.org/libros/ingles/Nibley%20-%20Temple_and_Cosmos_Beyond_This_Ignorant_Present_-_Hugh_Nibley.html (Accessed 3/29/2011)

[76] The garment is a “reminder of sacred covenants madw with the Lord, . . . a procective covering for the body, and a symbol of the modesty.” Carlos Asay, “The Temple Garment ‘An Outward Expression of an Inward Commitment.” http://lds.org/ensign/1997/08/the-temple-garment-an-outward-expression-of-an-inward-commitment?lang=eng&query=asay+garment (Acccessed 3/29/2011)

[77] Christ’s atonement covers sins in a way that human efforts cannot. This can be seen by the difference between the garment and the apron of fig leaves.

[78] Matt 6:28-32

[79] See Isaiah 61:10; 2 Nephi 9:14; 1 Peter 5:5; D&C 88:125; Pslam 18:39; 2 Nephi 4:33; Alma 34:16

[80] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1643

[81] “The Sacrament of Marriage,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09707a.htm (accessed 3/19/2011)

[82] Eisenhofer and Lechner, Liturgy of the Roman Rite, p 126

[83] Dalmais, Eastern Liturgies, p 117, 120

[84] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1638-1639

[85] John Widstoe. “Temple Worship,” Utah Genological and Historical Magazine (April 1921) 49-64 http://www.watergeek.net/church/talks/Widstoe%20--%20temple%20worship.pdf (accessed 3/8/2011)

[86] Hugh B. Brown, “The LDS Concept of Marriage,” Improvement Era, Vol. 65 pg 57, 598

[87] For a more detailed explanation of LDS temple marriage see Doctrine and Covenants, (Kirtland, Ohio: F.G. Williams & Co., 1835), Section CI. Marriage and The Papers of Joseph Smith Vol 1: Autobiographical and Historical Writings (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1989), 145-46.

[88] While not typically practiced in the temple Latter-day Saints also partake of the Lord’s Supper in weekly sacrament meetings. This is called the sacrament in LDS theology. The sacrament is not only a remembrance of the body and blood of Christ but also a time for introspection, and recommitment. The sacrament is a weekly renewal of all the covenants a Latter-day Saint has made.

[89] Von Wellnitz

[90] Catechism of the Catholic Church 1348

[91] The following are ways that communal worship is made manifest in Catholic tradition.“It is a Universal custom to rise and remain standing in the presence of superios, so that to pray standing is an outward sign of respect toward God” Eisenhower and Lechner, Liturgy of the Roman Rite, p 85 “Kneeling is also obsevered; its symbolic meaning denotes humility, pleading, seeking for help and even an admission of guilt” Von Wellnitz pg 30 also ssee Eisenhofer and Lechner, Liturgy of the Roman Rite, pg 85-86 Kings 8:54, 18:8; Daniel 6:10; Luke 22:41; Matthew 20:36 Acts 9:40“Sometime[s] ye sing, sometime[s] ye reead, sometime[s] ye hear; sometime[s] ye sit, sometime[s] ye stand, sometime[s] ye incline, sometime[s] ye kneel.” Waler, The Ritual “Reason Why.”, p 83

[92]“They did not merely listen to the prayers of the priest in silence but ratified them by acclamations.” Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, p 170

[93] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1349

[94] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1383

[95] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1358

[96] Von Wellnitz pg16

[97] Walker, The Ritual “Reason Why,” p 99

[98] Jungmann, Mass of the Roman Rite, pg 199; Walker, The Ritual “Reason Why,” p 169

[99] Walker, The Ritaul “Reason Why,” p 116-117

[100] Jungmann, Mass of the Roman Rite, p 172 The role of the prophet isn’t to be an advocate of the people to God but an advocate of God to the people.

[101] Jungmann, Mass of the Roman Rite, p 172

[102] Dunneyy, The mass, p 17 See also Amiot, History of the Mass, p 82; Exodus 17:11, 9:29; Psalms 27:2, 62:5, 133:2; Luke 24:50; Isiah 1:15, Tertullian De Oratione 14 Clement 1 Epistle to the Corinthians 29

[103] McCormack, Christian Initiation, pp 55-58 The mass is the high point of the liturgical year. For forty days the congregants have not sung the Gloria or Alleluia. At the Easter Vigil often the Gloria is jubilantly sung and bells are rang and every person’s lights are lit. It is during this celebration where catechumens are baptized and candidates are confirmed in one joyous First Communion. For more information detailing easter worship in the ancient church see Stephen D. Ricks “Liturgy and Cosmogony: The Ritual Use of Creation Accounts in the Near East.”

[104] Alfred Edersshiem, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Comp., reprint 1958) p 48

[105] Rykwert, Church Building p 29

[106] Wharton B. Marriott, Vestiarum Christianum, The Origin and Gradual Development of the Dress of the Holy Ministry in the church (London: Rivingtons, 1868) pg. xxv Also see Corinthians 11

[107] Clement mentions this, “And this further let the woman have: let her wholly cover her head. . . . And if this with modesty, and with a veil, she covereth her own eyes, she shall neither be misled herself, nor shall she draw others, by the exposure of her face, into the dangerous path of sin. For this willeth the Word; seeing that it is meet for the woman that she pray with a covered head. Quoted in Marriot, Vestiarium Christianum, p. xxv. To see a further discussion of this from see http://forums.catholic.com/showthread.php?t=428349 (accessed 3/10/2011) It should be noted that once again in contemporary worship this is no longer the case for most women.

[108] “The teachings began with a recital of the creation of the earth and its preparation to host life. The story carried the familiar ring of the Genesis account, echoed as will in Joseph Smith’s revealed book of Moses and book of Abraham.” Glen M. Leonard, Navuoo: A Place of Peace, A people of Promise [Salt Lake City: Desert Book Co., 2002],235

[109] An example of the portrayal of these different characters can be seen the Heber C. Kimball Journal that was kept by William Clayton. 10-13 December 1845. Also see Journal of Discourses 1:51

[110] See Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses 2:31,

[111] “This course of instruction includes a recital of the most prominent events of the creative period, the condition of our first parents in the Garden of Eden, their disobedience and consequent expulsion from that blissful abode, their condition in the lone and dreary world when doomed to live by labor and sweat, the plan of redemption by which the great transgression may be atoned, the period of the great apostasy, the restoration of the Gospel with all its ancient powers and privileges, the absolute and indispensable condition of personal purity and devotion to the right in present life, and a strict compliance with Gospel requirements.” James E. Talmage, The House of the Lord (1912, rpt. Ed., Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1962), 99-100

[112] Victor Ludlow, Principles and Practices of the Restored Gospel (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1992) as cited http://www.mormonmonastery.org/what-happens-in-mormon-temples/ (accessed 3/29/2011)

[113] L. John Nuttall Diary, 7 Feb. 1877, typescript, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

[114] “It is the province of Eloheem,[sic] Jehovah and Michael to create the world, plant the Garden and create the man and give his help meet. Eloheem[sic] gives the charge to Adam in the Garden and thrusts them into the Telestial kingdom of the world. Then Peter assisted by James and John conducts them through the Telestial and Terrestrial kingdom administering the charges and tokens in each and conducts them to the vail[sic] where they are received by the Eloheem and after talking with my words and tokens are admitted by him into the celestial kingdom Brigham Young cited by William Clayton, in Diary Kept for Heber C. Kimball, 13 Dec 1845

[115]“Went to the temple in the morning with my wife . . . and received my washing and Anointing and passed on from the creation to the garden, Telestial, terrestrial and Celestial [rooms] within the vail[sic].” Phineas Richards, Diary, Dec 1845 LDS Archives

[116] See Heber C. Kimball Journal, no. 93 (21 Nov. 1845-47 Jan 1846) LDS Historical Department Archives Also Leonard states that “the disobedience and expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden set the stage for an explanation of Christ’s atonement for the original transgression and for the sins of the entire human family.” Also, Leonard, Navouu, 258 book

[117] In the creation room Latter-day Saints learn about the creation of the world. The walls of older temples are painted to represent this creation.

[118] The garden room shows the earth in its paradisiacal state. “The Garden Room is furnished with rich continuous wall through ceiling oil murals that represent the ‘earth as it was before sin entered and bought with it a curse; it is the Garden of Eden in miniature,’ Cast in pervading greens, yellows, and subtle blues, the mural depicts a luxuriant landscape with birds, insects and beasts living in harmony.” The Salt Lake Temple: A Monument to the People,[Salt Lake City: University Services, Inc., 1983], 92 In the Garden room “there is no suggestion of disturbance, enmity or hostility the beast are at peace and the birds live in amity.” Talmage, 206 See 11 dec 1845William Clayton, Diary kept for Heber C. Kimball for a description of the rooms in the Nauvoo temple

[119] The focus of the Telestial room is the “earth in a fallen rather than exalted state.” The Salt Lake Temple: A Monument to the People,[Salt Lake City: University Services, Inc., 1983], 94It is in this room that “lectures are gicen pertaining to the endowments.” Talmage, 206-207

[120] The intent of this room is to illustrate the drastic change from Telestial to terrestrial. The room in some temples is physically elevated by “a step or level to stress a drastic change in the implied environment. The carnage and strife of the Telestial Room give way to a room completely devoid of such images. The intent was to illustrate the marked doctrinal and environmental differences between the rewards of these two kingdoms. The new indirect lighting system, crystal chandeliers, and mirrors enhance the effect of increased spirituality.” The Salt Lake Temple: A Monument to the People,[Salt Lake City: University Services, Inc., 1983], 97

[121] “The symbolic importance of the room is apparent from its increased size. The most obvious dimensional change is its . . . ceiling. The spatial expansion was a deliberate effort to express visually a feeling of exaltation and a spiritual terminus. The concept of a terminus is suggested by the absence of an altar and the accustomed attached and orient row seating. . . the furniture is set within an environment designed to imply the majesty that one would associate with the Kingdom of God. . . The Celestial Room does not exhibit the restraint of the Terrestrial Room.” The Salt Lake Temple: A Monument to the People,[Salt Lake City: University Services, Inc., 1983], 98

[122] “The ordinances of the endowment embody certain obligations on the part of the individual, such as covenant and promise to observe the law of strict virtue and chastity, to be charitable, benevolent, tolerant and pure; to devote both talent and material means to the spread of truth and the uplifting of the race; to maintain devotion to the cause of truth; and to seek in every way to contribute to the great preparation that the earth may be made ready to receive her King,—the Lord Jesus Christ. With the taking of each covenant and the assuming of each obligation a promised blessing is pronounced, contingent upon the faithful observance of the conditions.” James E. Talmage, The House of the Lord [Salt Lake City: Desert Book Co., 1968] pp83-84 Also see “Endowment,” http://www.mormonmonastery.org/what-happens-in-mormon-temples/ (Accessed 3/28/2011)

[123] Leonard, Nauvoo, 259 also see Widstoe, Temple Worship

[124] “Diptych,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ (accessed 3/18/2011)

[125] “Diptych,” http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ (accessed 3/18/2011)

[126] Jungmann, Mass of the Roman Rite, p 396

[127] This order of prayer is not unique to Latter-day Saints. In 1801 revivalists in Cane Ridge Kentucky, “collected in small circles of 10 or 12” to engage in prayer. As cited in Catherine C. Cleveland, The Great Revival in the West, 1797-1805 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1916) 79. Prayer in circles was also evident in the revivals of Methodists and Episcopalians in the 1820-30’s. “When the invitation was given, there was a general rush, the large ‘prayer ring’ was filled, and for at least two hours prayer ardent went up to God.” Rev. James Erwin, Reminiscences of Early Circuit life (Toledo, Ohio: Spear, Johnson & Co., 1884)68. Also see George S. Tate, “Prayer Circle, Encloypedia of Mormonism http://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Prayer_Circle (Acessed 3/29/2011)

[128] “President Snow put on his holy temple robes, repaired again to the same sacred altar . . . and poured out his heart to the Lord.” LeRoi C. Snow, “An Experience of My Father’s” Improvement Era 36 (August 1933):345 See also A Token of Love from the Members of the John Taylor Prayer Circle to Patriarch Joseph Horne (Salt Lake City: The John Taylor Prayer Circle, 1895); History of the Elders’ Quorum Prayer Circle, Salt Lake City, 1893-1929 (Salt Lake City: n.p., n.d.).

[129] Cited by D. Michael Quinn, "Latter-day Saint Prayer Circles", 19 BYU Studies, 79-105 (Fall 1978) see also Minutes of the School of the Prophets, (Salt Lake City, 11 October 1883, Church Historical Department),69

[130] Heber C. Kimball 1840-45 Journal, 24 July 1845 “The Holly[sic] order met at the usual place for prair.[sic]” Willard Richards Journal 24 July 1845: “4 P.M. prayer meeting – after which the Quorum agreed to take no more snuff and tobacco for 6 weeks.”

[131] “The Purpose of thee prayer circle: The true order of prayer, Get close to the Lord, Spirits drawn out to God and His Son, Hearts Humble, contrite and at peace, Soften hearts of participants and draws them near to God, Perfect love and harmony, Pray for the sick, Pray for the advancement of the Lord’s work with His blessing upon the people and His leaders.” “Requirements and Instructions for Setting Up Prayer Circles,” Church Historical Department as cited by D. Michael Quinn, "Latter-day Saint Prayer Circles", 19 BYU Studies, 79-105 (Fall 1978)

[132] Matthew B. Brown, “The Gate of Heaven,” as cited by http://www.templestudy.com/2008/01/23/knocking-3-times-on-the-holy-door/ (accessed 3/29/2011) Also see “The last years of Paulus VI (G.B. Montini 1974-78),” 02:56 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uIztLx4ZG8A (accessed 3/29/2011) for a video of the Pope performing this rite.

[133] “Knocking 3 Times On The Holy Door” http://www.templestudy.com/2008/01/23/knocking-3-times-on-the-holy-door/ (accessed 3/29/2011)